Pneumonia in a child: types, causes and treatment
Pneumonia in both a child and an adult is pneumonia, which affects the alveoli and tissues. The process can affect only part of the lung (focal), or spread further. As a result, pneumonia in a child can cover completely one lung (total). Therefore, it is one-sided and even two-sided. In this article, we will analyze why a disease may appear, how to determine it, cure it and prevent it.
Causes of pneumonia in children
Pneumonia can be caused by various reasons. Provoke the development of the disease can: hypothermia, a decline in immunity, stress, hypo – and vitamin deficiencies, systemic sleep deprivation, general overwork.
The causes of the disease:
Infection caused by the vital activity of bacteria, for example, pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci. It is important to know that they can also develop if foreign fluid enters the lungs (aspiration pneumonia). It can be vomit or amniotic fluid, if we talk about newborns during childbirth.
Viruses, therefore, can occur against the background of influenza.
Fungi that infect the baby’s lungs.
There is also a mixed type of pneumonia, when the disease is caused by several pathogens at once.
Children under the age of 5 are at risk of developing pneumonia.
The development of pneumonia occurs with improper treatment of cough. For example, if a child was given antitussive drugs. Sputum removes pathogens from the lungs. Accordingly, sputum congestion can lead to pneumonia. Also, this applies to children who do not like to “expectorate” phlegm. Parents should control this and explain to the child that she needs to spit.
Symptoms of pneumonia in children
There are several forms of pneumonia, so the symptoms may vary slightly. For example, typical pneumonia is characterized by rapid development and a sharp rise in temperature. Cough is accompanied by profuse secretion of purulent sputum. Another case is SARS, which develops slowly with dry cough and perspiration. Distinctive symptoms of croupous pneumonia in a child are a sharp increase in body temperature to 39-40 degrees. From the first day shortness of breath begins, and on the 2nd – 3rd day “rusty” sputum is released, cough is accompanied by stitching pains in the chest. Learn more about the symptoms of pneumonia in children.
To make an accurate diagnosis, a specialist prescribes a lung x-ray and a sputum examination. If the first symptoms of pneumonia in a child are detected, you should immediately consult a specialist. The disease progresses rapidly and affects the remaining parts of the lungs. This leads to complications in a small patient, and delays the treatment process.
Pneumonia in a child: treatment
For the treatment of pneumonia in a child, mucolytic agents are prescribed. Antibiotic therapy is used to treat pneumonia of an infectious origin. If the cause is viruses, then antibiotics are not effective. This is a common mistake of many who decide to self-medicate. This type of pneumonia is treated with antiviral drugs. That is why it is important to undergo an examination, and only then can a specialist prescribe adequate treatment.
To cough was productive and relieved sputum, you can turn to herbal medicine. Licorice root or breast fees a child can take immediately after a drop in temperature. Make sure that the baby does not have individual tolerance to the components.
As a support for the body, it is recommended to adjust the baby’s nutrition. It must be balanced. To provide additional support for immunity, a vitamin or vitamin-mineral complex is prescribed. If the doctor suspects that the child has mixed pneumonia, then antibiotics are additionally prescribed.
If a child is ill with something, and he becomes worse and worse within 3 days, then consult a doctor immediately. Call an ambulance if necessary.
Improper treatment of pneumonia in a child can lead to complications and the disease covers more than one focus, but spreads to the lung, can develop into bilateral pneumonia. Treatment is carried out in a hospital, under x-ray control, under the supervision of a doctor. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation is required.
If the doctor suggests sending the child to the hospital, then you should not refuse. In these conditions, specialists are more able to monitor the well-being of the child and provide treatment.
Treatment for pneumonia caused by bacteria or fungi
If the doctor prescribed antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in a child, then we can talk about effectiveness only after 2-3 days. If improvements have come: the temperature has dropped, the cough has become easier, the head and body are less sore, then the course of taking the drugs is continued. In the case when the drugs do not help, then other analogues from the same group are selected. Even when the child begins to feel good, it is necessary to complete the course of antibiotic therapy.