First aid for electric shock: what can be done before the ambulance arrives
As a rule, we get an electric shock or electric shock in everyday life: broken sockets, electrical appliances, neglect of basic safety precautions are the main causes of electric trauma. But danger can wait on the street. This is a ragged electric wire, a thunderstorm with lightning.
Electric trauma can be deadly, and often the first, first medical aid provided on time will save a person’s life when shocked.
How does the current affect the human body
The peculiarity of electrical injury is the special effect of electric current. With electrical injury, this is what happens.
An electric burn occurs. The current flows through the tissues, heats them, causing burns; where he entered and exited, current signs are formed – dots or stripes.
A malfunction in the heart may occur. This is due to the fact that electrical impulses are generated in the heart, which allow it to contract. When exposed to external impulses during an electric shock, the rhythm is broken, and the heart may even stop.
The whole human body is a good conductor. Therefore, the current easily passes through it, damaging organs, muscles, blood vessels. The nervous and respiratory systems are the first to suffer. Convulsions occur, the victim loses consciousness, breathing may stop.
Degrees of electric shock
1. The easiest 1st degree: a person does not lose consciousness, muscle cramps occur, but they quickly pass, leaving a feeling of weakness.
Safest 1st degree electric shock
2. At the 2nd degree, along with convulsions, loss of consciousness occurs. In this case, the heart works, breathing is not disturbed.
3. 3rd degree is more severe: a person loses consciousness, cramps are possible, the activity of the heart muscle, breathing are disturbed.
4. To the 4th degree include electrical injury that caused clinical death – the heart stops, there is no breathing.
How serious the damage will turn out depends on several factors: what strength and voltage current; variable or permanent; how long a person has been under his influence. The individual characteristics of a person play a role.
How to provide first aid for electric shock
Everyone needs to know what to do in case of electric shock.
The primary task is to terminate the current
It is necessary to de-energize the devices or (if impossible) to remove a person from the source of electric current.
At the same time, you should take care of your own safety. After all, being under current, a person himself becomes his vehicle. Therefore, touching it without protection, you risk lying next to the victim, and both will need help. You must also understand: everything that a person touches under current can also be dangerous – current can flow through these objects.
Do not touch the person who is shocked with bare hands
When an electric shock occurred in the room from the action of an electrical appliance or outlet, it is best to disconnect the entire network from power – turn off the general switch.
When it is impossible to turn off the electricity, remove the current source from the victim. In no case do not touch the victim with your bare hands, and of course you can not remove the live wire from it. Rubber gloves can protect. You can drop the wire from the victim with a wooden stick, folded paper, etc. You can drag a person by taking him by the edge of the clothing, without touching the exposed parts of the body.
When a person is struck by lightning, his body will not be energized. You can safely touch it with your bare hands.
And when a person receives electric shock from a high-voltage wire lying on the ground, especially wet (but not on asphalt – asphalt does not conduct current), then a zone within a radius of 6 m from the wire will be dangerous. In this situation, it is necessary to approach the victim either in rubber boots, or placing wooden planks, rubber and other dielectric materials (that is, not conducting current) under his feet. Or approach a dangerous place without taking your feet off the ground.
Dielectric materials: wood (dry!), Paper, rubber, cardboard, glass.
Conductors – water, all metals, earth, the human body.
Further, first aid for electric shock will depend on the depth of the lesion. To do this, we need to evaluate the state of the person:
is he conscious?
is breathing audible?
is there a pulse
When providing first aid, feel the pulse of the victim
Further actions depend on the answers to these questions.
The man did not lose consciousness
After an electric shock, a high probability of heart rhythm disturbances. A person may feel dizzy, frightened, overwhelmed. In this case, the less the victim is moved, the better. He should not make sudden movements, get up quickly. It is advisable to lay it, cover with a blanket and call an ambulance. You can give him valerian.
If a burn has formed after exposure to current, it is treated. How this is done, see here.
A man unconscious, he breathes, the heart works
The victim must be put on his side, call an ambulance.