Urticaria in a child: treatment, causes and symptoms
The main symptoms of the appearance of urticaria in both a child and an adult include:
Red spots on the body;
Blisters on the mucous membranes;
Swelling of the face, eyes;
At the very beginning of its occurrence, an obsessive itching appears, especially in places where clothes are most tightly in contact: seams from underwear, elastic of pants, etc. Then blisters appear, similar to a nettle burn (hence the name) or insect bites. If urticaria has arisen from external exposure to an allergen (household chemicals, an insect bite), then itching and redness spread from this place on the body.
Most often, when itching and rashes occur, people take these symptoms for allergies. However, urticaria can only conditionally be attributed to allergies, since it is not always provoked by an allergen.
It happens that all symptoms disappear within 3 hours without medication. However, urticaria may not pass within 3 days, and it is dangerous for the child. And all because edema can spread to the mucous membranes and cause edema, which can make breathing difficult. That is why it is important to consult a doctor with this problem, even if the rash has already disappeared.
Causes of urticaria in children
Redness can appear in both a nursing baby and an adult. The culprit of all the symptoms is histamine, a hormone that is released when an allergen enters the body. He is trying to rid the body of toxic substances that are released when exposed to an allergen. Due to its secretion, itchy redness appears on the skin. Urticaria occurs approximately 1–3 hours after exposure to an allergen. The main factors that can cause it:
Pollen and dust;
That is, not only allergens, but also many other factors can cause urticaria. However, the non-allergic form of the disease is extremely rare and, first of all, it is necessary to find out or exclude the effect of the allergen. Usually it is not difficult for parents to determine the source of acute urticaria in their child, to remember what they contacted in the next few hours, what food they consumed and where they were. The most common causative agent of skin rash and itching is food allergy. Pay attention to what the child ate in the coming hours and exclude allergenic foods from the diet.
Another common source of rashes is household chemicals. It includes hygiene products (shampoos, balms), washing powder, perfume, cleaning products. Analyze what new remedies have appeared in your home; perhaps the culprit of the urticaria is on a shelf in your bathroom. What did the child use during this day? What did you contact? All this should be told at the doctor’s appointment.
Chronic urticaria lasts more than 6 weeks. It may include a reaction to cold, sun, vibration and heavy physical exertion. Such species are rarer and more unpleasant. Indeed, in order to, for example, relieve the symptoms of thermal urticaria, it is necessary to exclude the ingress of sunlight on the skin.
Urticaria in infants
Urticaria in infants is not a very common occurrence. It most often occurs if one of the parents has an allergy. However, allergic reactions and rashes in infants are frequent. The rash in a nursing baby is different from the rashes of an adult baby. Most often it is a small placer of red spots of different densities. Such a reaction can occur from those factors that in older children: food allergen (with mother’s milk), external factors (dust, flowering, dry air), hygiene products (bath products, powders). With a rash in a baby, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Treatment of rashes in children
The best way to treat urticaria should be made by the child’s doctor. Usually the scheme of its treatment, like other allergic reactions, in children consists of:
Reception of antihistamines;
Reception of enterosorbing agents;
Exclusions of allergens.
First of all, it is necessary to exclude all food allergens from the diet of the child. In most cases, antihistamines are prescribed to relieve the unpleasant symptoms of urticaria. They stop the work of histamine, which causes itching, swelling and redness. Most often, children are prescribed Zyrtec medicine – an allergy remedy.
Then the doctor prescribes drugs that remove toxins from the body: polysorb, enterosgel, etc. This is necessary in order to help the body get rid of toxins that are developed due to an allergic reaction.
A visit to the doctor is still necessary, even if the itching and blisters have subsided. He must examine the child and, if necessary, prescribe a series of tests to determine the allergen that provokes the urticaria in the child.
During the urticaria in a child, take a photo of the foci of redness, show these pictures to the doctor. Then, if the symptoms go away before taking the doctor, the doctor will be able to examine the rash and establish the correct diagnosis.